Environmental Health
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
 
  Integrated Pest Management (IPM)  
 
 

ABCDEFGHILMNOPRSTVW

*Definition provided with permission by the Washington State Department of Agriculture.

N

NECROSIS

Death of plant or animal tissues resulting in the formation of discolored, sunken, or necrotic (dead) areas.

NEUROTOXIC

The ability of a substance or agent to cause disorders of the nervous system.

NONSELECTIVE PESTICIDE

A pesticide that is toxic to a wide range of plants or animals without regard to species. For example, a nonselective herbicide can kill or damage all plants it contacts.

NONTARGET ORGANISM

Any plant or animal other than the intended target(s) of a pesticide application.

NOXIOUS WEED

A plant defined by law as being particularly troublesome, undesirable, and difficult to control.

O

ORAL TOXICITY

Ability of a pesticide to cause injury when taken by mouth.

ORGANOPHOSPHATES

A large group of pesticides that contain the element phosphorus. Most are nonpersistent insecticides/miticides. Many are highly toxic. Examples are malathion, parathion, and diazinon.

P

PARASITE

A plant, animal, or microorganism living in, on, or with another living organism for the purpose of obtaining all or part of its food.

PATHOGEN

A disease-causing organism.

PERENNIAL

A plant that lives for more than two years.

PERSISTENT PESTICIDE

A pesticide chemical (or its metabolites) that remains active in the environment more than one growing season. These compounds sometimes accumulate in animal and plant tissues. Examples are DDT, chlordane, and dieldrin.

PEST

An undesirable organism (e.g., insect, fungus, nematode, weed, virus, or rodent) injurious to humans, desirable plants and animals, manufactured products, or natural products.

* PEST

Any insect, rodent, nematode, snail, slug, weed and any form of plant or animal life or virus, except virus on or in a living person or other animal, that adversely interferes with the aesthetic, health, environmental, or economic goals of humans.

* PESTICIDE

Any substance registered by the Washington State Department of Agriculture as a pesticide.

PESTICIDE

A chemical or other agent used to kill or otherwise control pests, or protect from a pest.

PESTICIDE FORMULATIONS

Mixtures of active and inert ingredients. Make an active ingredient more convenient to handle; safer, easier, and more accurate to apply; and in some cases more attractive to the pest. Examples are emulsifiable concentrates, water-dispersible granules, and fumigants.

PH

A measure of the acidity/alkalinity of a liquid; acid below pH 7, basic or alkaline above pH 7.

PHEROMONE

A substance emitted by an animal to influence the behavior of other animals of the same species. Some are synthetically produced for use in insect traps.

PHOTODEGRADATION

Breakdown of chemicals by the action of sunlight.

PHYTOTOXICITY

Injury to plants.

POSTEMERGENCE

After the weed or crop plants have appeared through the soil. Usually used to specify the timing of herbicide applications.

PPE

Personal protective clothing and equipment. Intended to protect a person from exposure during the handling and application of pesticides. Includes long-sleeved shirts, long trousers, coveralls, hats, gloves, shoes, and respirators.

PREDATOR

An animal that attacks, feeds on, and kills other animals. Examples are hawks, owls, snakes, fish, and many insects.

PREEMERGENCE

Before weeds or crop plants have appeared through the soil. Used to specify the timing of herbicide applications.

PREMIX

A pesticide product formulated with more than one active ingredient.

PRIVATE APPLICATOR

A type of applicator certification or license for a land owner/lessee or employee who uses restricted use pesticides on cropland or associated agricultural non-cropland to produce agricultural commodities.

PRIVATE-COMMERCIAL APPLICATOR

A type of applicator certification or license for a land owner/lessee or their employee who uses restricted use pesticides for purposes other than producing agricultural commodities.

PUBLIC CONSULTANT

A type of certification or license for a government agency or utility company employee who offers technical advice or recommendations for pesticide use (other than for home or gardens) during the course of their employment.

PUPA

The intermediate developmental stage of some insects between larva and adult.

R

RATE OF APPLICATION

The amount of pesticide applied to a plant, animal, unit area, or surface; usually measured as per acre, per 1,000 square feet, per linear feet, or per cubic feet.

REGISTERED PESTICIDES

Pesticide products that have been registered by the Environmental Protection Agency for the uses listed on the label.

REPELLENT

A compound that keeps insects, rodents, birds, or other pests away from plants, domestic animals, buildings, or other treated areas.

RESIDUAL PESTICIDE

A pesticide that continues to remain effective on a treated surface or area for an extended period following application.

RESIDUE

A pesticide’s active ingredient or breakdown product(s) that remains in or on a target after treatment.

RESISTANT

—1) A population of organisms that are uninjured or unaffected by a certain dosage of pesticide chemical used to control other populations of the same organism successfully. 2) Plants and animals that are unaffected by a pest species. (See TOLERANT)

RESTRICTED USE PESTICIDE

A pesticide that can be purchased only by certified pesticide applicators and used only by certified applicators or persons directly under their supervision. Not available for use by the general public because of their high toxicities and/or environmental hazards.

RODENTICIDE

A pesticide used to control rodents.

RUNOFF

The movement of water and associated materials on the soil surface.

S

SELECTIVE PESTICIDE

A pesticide that is toxic to some pests, but has little or no effect on other similar species. Some fungicides are so selective that they control only water-mold pathogens and no other fungi.

SIGNAL WORDS

Required word(s) that appear on pesticide labels to denote the relative toxicity of the product: DANGER-POISON used with a skull and crossbones symbol for highly toxic compounds, DANGER for skin and eye irritants, WARNING for moderately toxic, and CAUTION for slightly toxic compounds.

SOIL DRENCH

To soak or wet the ground surface with a pesticide. Large volumes of a pesticide mixture are usually needed to saturate the soil to any depth.

SOIL INJECTION

The placement of a pesticide below the surface of the soil; common application method for fumigants and termiticides.

SOIL STERILANT

A chemical or agent that prevents the growth of all organisms present in the soil; a nonselective pesticide. Soil sterilization may be temporary or permanent depending on the chemical.

SOLVENT

A liquid such as water, oil, or alcohol that will dissolve another substance (solid, liquid, or gas) to form a solution.

SPOT TREATMENT

Application to small areas.

SPREADER

An adjuvant used to enhance the spread of a pesticide over a treated surface, thus increasing the area that a given volume of liquid will cover.

STICKER

An adjuvant used to improve pesticide spray droplet adherence to a plant, animal, or other treated surface.

STRUCTURAL PESTS

Pests that attack and destroy buildings and other structures, clothing, stored food, and manufactured/processed goods. Examples are termites, cockroaches, clothes moths, rats, and dry-rot fungi.

STRUCTURAL PEST INSPECTOR

A type of applicator certification or license for an individual who inspects a structure for wood-destroying organisms or conditions conducive to their development.

SUMMER ANNUAL

Plants that germinate in the spring or summer and complete their life cycle within one year.

SURFACTANT

A component of many adjuvants that improves the spreading, dispersing, and/or wetting properties of a pesticide mixture.

SUSCEPTIBLE

1) A plant, animal, or site affected by a pest. 2) Pest populations that can be controlled by pesticides.

SYSTEMIC PESTICIDE

A chemical absorbed and translocated within a plant or animal.

T

TARGET

The plants, animals, structures, areas, or pests at which the pesticide or other control method is directed.

TERATOGENIC

The property of a substance or agent able to produce abnormalities or defects in living human or animal embryos and fetuses. These defects are not usually inheritable.

* TIMING

involves applying a treatment action during the most vulnerable time in the life cycle of the pest or vegetation with the least impact on natural enemies.

TOLERANCE

A regulation that establishes the maximum amount of pesticide residue (active ingredient or certain metabolites) that may legally remain in or on a raw agricultural commodity (food or feed product) at harvest or slaughter.

TOLERANT

The property of organisms, including pests, to withstand a certain degree of stress, such as pest attack, poor weather, or pesticides.

TOXIC

Poisonous to living organisms.

TOXICITY

The degree or extent that a chemical or substance is poisonous.

TOXIN

A naturally-occurring poison produced by plants, animals, or microorganisms. Examples are the venom produced by black widow spiders and rattlesnakes.

TRANSLOCATION

The movement of materials within a plant or animal from the site of entry. A systemic pesticide is translocated.

V

VAPOR PRESSURE—

The property that causes a chemical to evaporate. The higher the vapor pressure, the more volatile the chemical or faster it will evaporate.

VIRUS

Ultramicroscopic parasites composed of proteins. Viruses can only multiply in living tissues and cause many animal and plant diseases.

VOLATILITY, VOLATILIZATION

The change of a substance from a liquid or solid state to a gas at ordinary temperatures when exposed to air.

W

WEED

An unwanted plant.

WETTING AGENT

An adjuvant used to reduce the surface tension between a liquid and contact surface for more thorough coverage.

WINTER ANNUAL

Plants that germinate in the fall and complete their life cycle within one year.

WSDA

Washington State Department of Agriculture. A regulatory agency that administers the Washington Pesticide Application Act of 1961 and the Washington Pesticide Control Act of 1971.

 
 
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This page last updated: 09/10/14